Physical and chemical characteristics of many EVs, as well as their biogenesis pathways, resemble those of retroviruses. Moreover, EVs generated by virus-infected cells can incorporate viral proteins and fragments of viral RNA.
EVs, depending on the proteins and genetic material incorporated in them, play a significant role in viral infection, both facilitating and suppressing it. Deciphering the mechanisms of EV-cell interactions may facilitate the design of EVs that inhibit viral infection.
PNAS August 16, 2016 113 (33) 9155-9161; first published July 18, 2016 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1605146113
TOPIC 1. VIRUSES USE EVs TO SPREAD DISEASE AND TO MODULATE HOST RESPONCES
1. Epstein-Barr virus noncoding RNAs from the extracellular vesicles of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cells promote angiogenesis via TLR3/RIG-I-mediated VCAM-1 expression.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis. 2019 Jun 1;1865(6):1201-1213.
2. HPV DNA Associates With Breast Cancer Malignancy and It Is Transferred to Breast Cancer Stromal Cells by Extracellular Vesicles.
De Carolis S, et al. Front Oncol. 2019.
This paper shows how EB virus induces a distant modulation of angiogenesis trough lncRNAs coded by itself and vehicled trough EVs.
3. Extracellular Vesicles Deliver Host and Virus RNA and Regulate Innate Immune Response. Int J Mol Sci. 2017 Mar 20;18(3)
Kouwaki et al. Review the mechanisms by which Hepatitis-B virus utilizes the EVs and host microRNAs to counteract the antiviral innate immune response